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It stems from the fact that populations are ageing, not only in Poland, but in the whole Europe. The civilization progress resulted in the rising life expectancy — making its last stage longer. Longer life means longer old age. However, it seems that the old age to be happy canot be spent in loneliness. Seniors need activities and being active, however it is vital that in all actions and steps taken, the attention needs to be drawn only to the elderly, it is them who are supposed to be active.
We must realize that something that was satisfactory 30 years ago, does not have to and will not be satisfactory for the elderly nowadays. The type of activity is not only dependent on personal preferences, health condition, skills possessed but it also reflects social context, expectations and what the community offers itself. Retiring is linked to the issue of time management, which before the retirement has been conditioned by professional work. Most frequently the daily rhythm undergoes changes, the everyday habits such as walks and shopping become stretched in time.
Moreover, it makes it possible for the elderly to focus on his or her needs and pleasures. An elderly person must be aware of the likelihood of being dependent on other people. The more active seniors are, the better physical and mental health they are in. The activity is the guarantee of social existence, integration with the community and with the modern, demanding society.
It is one of the determinants of keeping up mobility and good physical condition. The activities taken up by the elderly can be classified into the following ones: — Hobby — recreational walks, gardening, sport, hobby, cinema, theatre , — Receptive e. Halicka says that the most popular are receptive and integrative activities. Szatur-Jaworska, P. The main aim of their work is organizing and arranging different forms of educational, cultural, physical and social activities.
Various forms of activities allow them to realize different life goals, they also allow them to use their personal potential, fight the limits connected with the state of health, personal and social situation. The activity of the elderly is reflected in his or her style of life: in the subject literature passive and active styles are listed. The passive ones - characterized by withdrawing from life, getting discouraged, and active ones — these are preferable as serving the individual and the society. The research was conducted among the community of 8 Steuden, S.
As the widowed ones are in majority, it confirms the tendency that the countryside is usually populated by single people. Financial situation Since the respondents are mostly over 60, it seems obvious that the main source of income for them are state benefits. These are in most cases people who are over All of these extra benefits and money earned at work are mainly used for the purchase of coal and everyday needs.
Hence, the situation of those who are ineligible for pension, appears to be very difficult. Their main source of income is the benefits received from the Welfare Centre. For my basic needs it was enough. I hardly ever watch TV, I do not listen to the radio, but the bills are so high anyway. It is cheaper for me to use candles.
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In this way he gets the indispensable money for paying the electricity bills. The problems of everyday life Among the everyday life problems the respondents complained about, the most common ones are health problems: diseases, suffering and the deterioration of their health. They also complained about the lack of understanding from other people, the lack of people who would be willing to take care of them. They underlined that loneliness was understood as the feeling of lack of the nearest and dearest — the spouse, children and grandchildren.
Most of the occupants are not self-sufficient, excluded from the society, poor, and alcohol addicts. The bathroom, located in the hall, is shared by all the occupants. As they respondent claimed, the people living there do not care about the looks of their flats and neither do they care about the state of the common rooms. Owning their own flats and houses seems to be essential for older people.
Especially those having children and grandchildren cannot imagine living with them. Although they are forced to cope with the problem of loneliness, they still appreciate the comfort of having their own place. The costs of channeling the water are very high and not everyone can afford it. Providing for the basic everyday needs among the senior citizens of the villages is mostly determined by their financial situation, health and their physical condition. The respondents are elderly people whose physical condition is quite good in spite of their ageing. Most of them are able to cope with everyday life activi- ties on their own.
Their expectations when it comes to this help are: helping in housekeeping, doing the shopping, washing, cooking 12 , making arrangements with the doctor, going to offices, to the post office 6 , accompanying them at home or at the walk All of them receive social benefits. Their living conditions when taking sanitary- technical conditions into account, are not bad as well. Half of the research participants perceive their living conditions as being good.
Feeling of loneliness For the most of the research participants loneliness is associated with the physi- cal lack of the beloved person they have lived many years with. This feeling of isolation is deteriorated by the fact that the circle of friends is getting smaller. The family only visits me on Sundays and holidays and when they leave I stay alone, I am alone for many days. Among them there are people who stayed alone due to their wrong decisions and mistakes. They did not set up or they do not keep in touch with their family. They are alone, and they isolate themselves from the local community.
They prefer staying in their own flat, watching TV or listening to the radio. They do not feel like socializing with their neighbours living next door. My children are not interested in my life at all, so what will be later? I am used to being on my own, and let it be like this till then end of my life. I only stopped after the death of my partner who also drank without moderation. Finally she drank herself to death. The loneliness of an elderly person is most often caused by the accumulation of traumatic events.
In this period of life people are usually forced to deal with the death of their spouse. The majority of the respondents began to suffer from the feeling of loneliness after the loss of their husband or wife. However, this lack and loss often leads to getting engaged in the life of local community. In many cases, the loneli- ness of an elderly person is the result of not being in touch with their family, in particular with children who left for the city, are busy with work, have their own families and hardly ever visit their ageing parents.
Therefore, the feeling of the lack of understanding, and acceptance coming from the nearest and dearest, especially children, seems to be common among the elderly. Their health condition is not perceived as high by the respondents. According to 3 male respondents, their health can be described as good. Subjective health condition is mostly dependent on age — people from the age of 60 to 70 tend to perceive themselves as being in best health, whereas people over 80 tend perceive their health as being much worse. Most of the respondents described their health as bad, however, what is significant, the opinion about their health was much worse among women.
Over half of the respondents suffer from chronic diseases, which make their everyday functioning difficult. When growing older, these types of disorders are occurring more and more often. The most common ailments among the respondents are the diseases of the circulatory system, alimentary canal, and the respiratory system. It confirms the general tendency of chronic diseases among elderly people.
It is caused by the lack of specialists in their place of living, but also by the lack of money for the medicines. The people who perceived their health as being bad, take advantage of the help of the social worker employed in the Local Welfare Centre 2 people. This help involves helping in cleaning the house, doing the washing, but also preparing the meals, shopping, as well as accompanying at home or at the walks. This service is paid. These are not big amounts, yet the help of the care worker makes everyday life much easier. On the whole, I am self-sufficient and I manage somehow on my own, but my daughter insisted on this woman com- ing to me, she even pays for her, so what could I do?
In many cases giving up all activities takes place. The respondents listed the following values as crucial after the retirement: contacts with the family 11 , active social life 11 , work, which they like doing 11 , money 6. Most of the research participants did not engage in social work, social organizations, or trade unions when being professionally active. Most frequently they worked in shifts and that is why they did not have time to engage in social work. Before retirement only 4 people were active in social organizations.
Currently, when retired, ten people are involved. This activity is the result of having more free time, but it may be also caused by their willingness to fulfill the emptiness in their lives after work, and by im- plication not to feel lonely and useless. Through being active they feel needed, they know they can do something useful, they can share their experience and opinions with the others. It seems especially important for the people who used to work in their own farms before retirement.
The respondents grow vegetables in their gardens, and later they use them to prepare preserves for the winter. However, not all the people spend their time actively. Every elderly person has different needs, expectations and interests. The forms of activity in the countryside are not very attractive and diverse. However, being physically active is one of the factors which have an influence on longer life and enable the elderly to be self-sufficient, and by implication, independent. The most popular form of entertainment is watching TV and listening to the radio.
The seniors willingly spend time in their gardens, gardening is an essential form of activity among them.
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Taking care of physical fitness by for instance cycling, going for walks, is not very popular. The respondents do not even realize how crucial these activities are when it comes to staying healthy. They get on well with their families, they often meet them, though in many cases the children live on their own, frequently in the city. Yet, physical activity seems to be limited only to gardening, walking or cy- cling. The cultural activity does not occur at all — even the passive one culture consuming exists only in the form of mass media: watching TV serials, listening to the radio.
Old age in the country is not as colourful and diverse when it comes to activi- ties offered, as is the old age in the urban areas-especially in big cities — however, the seniors still enjoy their lives, devoting themselves to small everyday life tasks, contributing to the feeling of satisfaction they can experience, family and the community they live in.
The fact of appreciating work, attachment to their land and work on the farm are frequently the determinants of the activity lasting till the end of their lives. Julia aged 60 — active old age in the countryside Mrs. Julia is 60 years old, she has been receiving pension benefits for 5 years. She lives with her husband, primary education. Financial situation The pension is too little to cover the expenses connected with the maintenance of their house.
That is why, Mrs. You can always earn some penny. We always try to do something not to be worse than the others. She does not receive any financial aid. Family situation Mrs. They moved here when her parents died. The house was inherited from her parents. They made it bigger and renovated it. He is ill. Julia looks after him. They have 3 grown up children who are independent.
The children no longer live with their parents but they frequently visit them, es- pecially recently, when the dad is ill. Julia has 4 grandchildren. All of her children graduated from universities. Together with her husband they are proud of their children, pleased they all have jobs, that they still are willing to learn and improve themselves. Julia — al- though she drives less frequently these days.
She is afraid to drive longer distances. Julia perceives her health as average.
She does not have problems moving around, but she complains about varicose veins. She sometimes has backaches. She suffers from Graves-Basedov disease which results in gland disorder. I work when I want, nobody rushes me, only I can rush myself. When she wants to relax she does the embroidery. Although her children are worried she overstrains her eyes in that way, she claims that this is her way to rest and she gets rid of the stress. She enjoys having more time for herself, she goes to the church more frequently than she used to.
She spends her free time in an active way getting engaged in the Coun- tryside Housewives Club. She attends meetings, participates in the fairs of traditional handicraft made on her own with the crochet-hook. She is satisfied with the leisure activities. But the most essential is to be healthy. Her children gave her nordic walking sticks for her birthday, but Mrs. Julia loves the bicycle more. Karol, 61 — the old age in the countryside as a personal choice Mr. Karol says it is cheaper. It is always some extra income for us. Now his oldest daughter lives there with her partner.
Family situation Mr. Karol does not have any grandchildren yet. Recently he got to know his dream would come true at the end of the year. Karol helps them financially and with some jobs around the house. Health condition He claims his health condition is good.
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He is active, tries to do sport to stay fit. He had so much work to do. He worked under time pressure, duty and responsibility pressure as well. Now, after he retired, he enjoys physical work in the garden. He does the gardening, woodwork, and is socially active.
He is the chief manager of the fire brigade. He organizes events together with the fire brigade. However, he sometimes complains about his colleagues not being responsible, disciplined and hard-working. He is very demanding for himself and for the others as well.
He also derives satisfaction from his leisure activities. As it was already said before, Mr. He is disciplined but also irritable. It is easy to make him lose his temper. Karol had some hopes and expectations connected with his retirement. New time organization, which before his retirement was tightly conditioned by his work, makes him engage in what he previously dreamed about. Types of activities are not only dependant on personal preferences, health con- dition, and skills, but they also reflect the social context in which Mr. Karol lives. Janina, 69 — helps her children from the pension — a family conflict Mrs.
Janina is She has got two sons. Her monthly income is enough to cover everyday life expenses. However, she is of great help to her grandchildren. She bought the younger ones text- books to school, as well as she helps the older grandchildren and their families. Her flat has all the necessary facilities.
Janina has 2 grown up sons, 5 grandchildren and one great-granddaughter. She remarried 5 years ago. Therefore, the contacts are limited. The women do not get on well with each other, which with no doubt has an influence on the mother-son relationship. She helped her older son in building the house, she sold building plots she owned, offering money on the building. Although she does not have problems mov- ing, more and more often her legs hurt and swell.
Physical effort makes her blood pressure higher. Janina retired at the age of But all the time she actively participated in various social campaigns. Moreover, she willingly shares her knowledge about the region with others, she was awarded Oskar Kolberg Prize. Folk is, with no doubt, her passion and love. She devoted half of her life to it. However, her strength and patience are decreasing. She worries that she was doing her best all the time, collected so many props and now everything will be wasted.
She spends her free time praying. Financial situation Mrs. Her daughter and son-in-law do not work, which makes the situation more difficult. It is not enough for other needs. She moved to Chojne 6 years ago. When her health condition deteriorated, she decided to move to her daughter. The house is not equipped with central heating, it is heated with the stove.
There is no hot water. However, Mrs. She raised 6 children but no one wanted to take her home. She is in touch with her children but very seldom, they mainly talk on the phone. They hardly ever visit her. She does not ask for help. She is given some welfare benefits from the Local Welfare Centre.
She had her leg amputated, she suffers from diabetes, heart disease, kidney disorder, and weak eyesight. However, she deals with her wheelchair quite well, she is able to get in it and get off it by herself. She tries not to bother her daughter so much and be as independent and self-sufficient as it is possible.
When it is possible, they go downtown, walk and do the shopping. She also finds it essential to enable her mother to socialize with other people. Now she spends her free time reading books, she is keen on crime stories in particular. Unfortunately, her eyes are much weaker, and it makes it more difficult to enjoy her hobby.
However, she likes watching TV and listening to Radio Maryja as well. Every week she goes to church with her daughter. Because of the state of her health, her physical activity is limited. Franciszek, 74 — a lonely ageing Mr. He set up is own one — man business during the last years of his professional activity. He perceives his financial situation as satisfactory. They have additional source of income from the savings they had managed to save up on deposit accounts throughout all their life.
The income is enough to cover all their basic needs, however Mrs. Franciszek emphasizes the house maintenance expenses are very high. The price of water has increased, soon the prices for taking away the rubbish will be higher. You need to pay for the comfort. The house is equipped with running water, toilet, bath and central heating. They had their kitchen renovated last year, they bought new kitchen equip- ment and new furniture.
They painted all the rooms as well. Thanks to their neighbours most of their belongings were saved, however the rooms still needed to be renovated. Franciszek gets on well with his neighbours. Franciszek does not have children. When I look at my neighbours, I am jealous of that. Staszek, for example, his grandchildren are quite big now. She looks after him, and she takes care of the house. Health condition Mrs. Franciszek suffers from heart disorders. All his work, for example in the garden, is done so as not to overstrain him.
Apart from that, there is nothing that is hard for him. He looks after his health. The doctor suggested that he should do some physical activity outdoors and he follows his advice. Activity After he retired, he missed his work. It took him some time to get used to the fact that his life changed. Even now, he tends to wake up at 5 a.
He is afraid. Before the heart attack he did not care about his health so much. When he feels better, he goes to the river, very often with his neighbour who also likes spending time at the water. He is not particularly keen on books, but he enjoys watching TV, especially TV serials, quiz shows, action movies. He was involved in the building of the local school and he did not take wages for many working days. My wife supports me. I have everything. She has got 8 grandchildren and 3 great-grandchildren. They installed central heating, painted the house and had it insulated. However, she has some extra source of income: she sells her handicraft.
All the money she spends on living, medicines and bills. In winter she uses the stove which is in another building to heat her house, but when the winter is tough she is afraid to leave the house. Family situation Two of Mrs. He daughter is in the vil- lage council. The relationship between the mother and the daughter is good. She does the shopping. Women of similar age, and those who are much younger as well, offer her help and advice. She claims she has good neighbours, who are willing to help.
She perceives her financial situation as being average. She does not complain, she says that there are many people whose situation is worse. Health condition She takes advantage of the health care whenever it is necessary. Most frequently it means the need to get prescriptions for her medicine. I take my pressure on my own. This is her hobby and passion. And when it is warm, I ride my bike.
I spend most of my time at home, I am so addicted to my needle that even if I go somewhere I think of how much work I would have done staying at home. He lives on his own in his detached house. He used to work in one of the paint companies in Sieradz. He has go two daughters, three grandchildren and two great-grandchildren. Financial situation Mr. Now life is difficult. But so what, if I am left alone? He cannot get used to this situation. However, his daughter visits him every day and brings him meals. His grandchildren also visit him after work. They always try to spend some time with him. They look up to him.
He always helped his grandchildren, offered financial help, and was very supportive in their dif- ficult childhood and youth. Currently he is the one in need. But they lived together for 60 years. They celebrated their anniversary last year. She built her house on Mr. But I tell her, there is no use waiting, you cannot be sure anything in life, you are here, and soon you are not. He is depressed, sad, and ill more frequently than he used to.
His wife used to look after him, now he needs to look after himself on his own. His older daughter helps him. He regularly visits his doctor for check-ups. His grandchild takes him in his car. He goes for walks, in particular to the graveyard, does crosswords and reads newspapers to stay physically and mentally active.
Activity Mr. This prize is given to the folk culture creators. Now he has given up this activity.
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He sees no point. His wife was his second half. He does the gardening and works in the yard in his spare time. Currently it has been possible to be claim that the welfare and care system is mainly based on the family and its willingness to take care of its senior members. The access to geriatric services, rehabilitation and care in the countryside is very limited, which for elderly people has negative implications for the costs of health care and complications in their health.
The limited access to rehabilita- tion results in the loss of fitness and exclusion. The flats of elderly people in rural areas hardly ever are equipped with all the necessary facilities. They do not complain about their living standards, however their flats and houses are often be characterized by low technical standards, the lack of equipment, they need renovation and modernization. In Poland there are no programmes ena- bling the elderly to adapt their homes to their needs.
To improve social and individual situation of the elderly in rural communi- ties, the current system of education for elderly people should with no doubt undergo major changes. Preparing to an active old age definitely needs intro- ducing adequate programmes years in advance so that it would be possible to result in active ageing at the time which is appropriate for the population. The programmes preparing people to their retirement in the countryside should also be created. The collaboration of local authorities as well as their greater feeling of responsibility seems to be vital not only the help of the Local Welfare Centre-GOPS.
More attention should be given to inter-generation actions and programmes in the local communities supporting the bonds among the neighbours, com- munity integration. The activity of the elderly can also be supported by senior leaders. Health prevention programmes, promotion of healthy lifestyle seem to be equally crucial. Diverse forms of social activities and education for instance the voluntary sector, UTA etc. According to G. Specific goals: 1. Spending free time together; 7. Meetings with young people; 8.
One room can be occupied by up to 8 social workers. Such situation does not encourage persons who rarely go out from their house for social activity or exercise, which may lead to social exclusion. No participants continue to work. Volunteer Fire Services. Faliszek eds. Theory estab- lished by William E. Szukalski eds. Praca zbiorowa, Katowice, pp. Marzec-Holka, A. Rut- kowska, M. Joachimowska eds. Szatur- Jaworska, P. Mossakowska, A. Entities having a fundamental impact on elder people activation.
Karwacki eds. Misiewicz, D. Adamczyk eds. Kro- molicka ed. People are sensitive to beauty since early childhood. Early school-age children, occasionally even younger, start showing their special skills e. Yet some other diseases, e. Szewczuk ed. All these factors unfavorably affect everyday life. Olejnik, PWN, Warszawa, p. Positive value of artistic creativity and art therapy vs. Chabior, A. Pufal-Struzik, I. Zych ed. Kieszkowska, A. Borowska-Beszta, B. Popek, S. Con- temporary stereotypes concerning older people ought to be reviewed.
Karolak, B. Kaczorowska eds. Vital statistics in the years — and the prognosis for the years — Source: Informational note. The population prognosis for the period —, www. Table 1. The average life expectancy in Poland Men Women Years According to age 0 15 30 45 60 75 0 15 30 45 60 75 Women live longer. Men will live for approximately These are mainly technical work, music therapy, outdoor painting, meetings with interesting people, parties, bonfires, barbecues, dances, tours, performances, recreational trips. Jezierska, B.
Pancer-Cybulska ed. Nowicka ed. Since , these meet- ings have taken place regularly. An enlarger can be used by library members with poor eyesight. Rymer, as previously. These classes are still functioning. Gender a women 85,8 b men 17 14,2 2. Age a up to 59 9 7,5 b 60—65 52 43,4 c 66—70 34 28,3 d 71—75 16 13,3 e 76—80 7 5,8 f above 80 2 1,7 3.
Current marital status 52 43,3 a married 51 42,5 b widow — widower 17 14,2 c single 4. Education a university education 29 24,2 b after —secondary school 29 24,2 c secondary school 49 40,8 d vocational school 11 9,2 e primary school 2 1,6 5. Financial situation a very good 4 3,3 b good 61 50,9 c enough for basic needs 51 42,5 d not enough even for basic 4 3,3 needs 6. Only Jopkiewicz, E. Table 3.
Socializing 9,03 I 2. Helping children 68 7,93 V 3. Lust for education and 84 8,54 II Development 4. Attending cultural events 85 8,45 III 5. Trips 88 8,05 IV 6. Purchase of books 47 6,32 VIII 7. Trip to sanatorium 51 7,29 VI 8. Purchase of costly medicines 19 5,79 IX and rehabilitation equipment 9. House renovation 31 6,39 VII Meeting new people 91 75,8 2. Expanding knowledge 77 64,2 3. Filling free time 57 47,5 5. Learning New skills 40 33,3 6. Curiosity 20 16,7 8.
For Table 5.
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Certainly attractive 69 57,5 2. Rather attractive 35 29,2 3. Of medium attractiveness 15 12,5 4. Nothing should be changed 50 41,7 2. More interesting lectures 19 15,8 3. Wider variety of classes 9 7,5 4. More lectures 4 3,4 5. Other ideas 4 3,4 6. Table 7. Trips 87 72,5 2. Lectures 86 71,7 3. Cultural festivals 65 54,2 4. Classes within circles 28 23,2 5. Physical activities 15 12,5 6. Extremely big amount of changes 9 7,5 2. Big amount of changes 45 37,5 3. Medium amount of changes 44 36,7 4.
Table 9. Meeting new, interesting people 47 40,8 2. Expanding knowlegde 36 30,0 3. Filling leisure time 20 16,7 4. Closeness to people and the world 17 14,2 5. Possibility of participating in culture 7 5,8 7. Not much or nothing 7 5,8 8. Expelling the feeling of loneliness 5 4,2 9.
Merely 5. Table Signing up for the UTA 65 54,2 2. Being active 26 21,7 3. Meeting with pe ople 14 11,7 4. Other 12 10,0 5. Such people have to resign from trips or cultural offers, which might be harmful for their further development. Pascal-Leone, transcen- dental cognition. This question cannot be answered unequivocally.